Understanding Dependency Injection in .NET Core


What is Dependency Injection?

Definition and Core Concepts

Dependency Injection is a software design pattern that deals with how components in a system acquire their dependencies. In simpler terms, it's a technique where one object supplies the dependencies of another object. In the context of .NET Core, this is achieved through the built-in IoC container.

Inversion of Control (IoC) Principle

IoC is a broader concept, and Dependency Injection is one way to implement IoC. In IoC, the control over the flow of a program is inverted - instead of the programmer controlling the flow, the framework or container manages the flow.

Why Dependency Injection in .NET Core?

Advantages of Dependency Injection

Decoupling: DI helps in decoupling components, making the codebase more modular and maintainable.

Flexibility: Components become more flexible as they can be easily replaced or upgraded without affecting the entire system.

Testability: By injecting dependencies, it becomes easier to mock or substitute dependencies during unit testing.

Enhancing Testability and Maintainability

One of the primary benefits of Dependency Injection is its positive impact on testability. When components are loosely coupled, it becomes simpler to write unit tests. This is because you can replace real dependencies with mock objects, allowing you to isolate and test individual components.

Dependency Injection in Action

Setting up a .NET Core Project

Before diving into Dependency Injection, let's set up a simple .NET Core project. Open your preferred development environment, and create a new console application or web application using the .NET CLI or your IDE.

Creating a Simple Class with Dependencies

Registering Dependencies in Startup.cs

In your Startup.cs file, configure the services and register dependencies:

This configuration tells the DI container to create a new instance of ShippingService and EmailService for each request and a new instance of OrderProcessor whenever it is requested.

Real-life Example: E-commerce Order Processing

Identifying Dependencies

Consider an e-commerce application where an OrderProcessor class handles the processing of orders. It has dependencies on services like ShippingService and EmailService.

Implementing Dependency Injection

Follow the steps outlined in the previous section to implement Dependency Injection for the OrderProcessor class.

Code Snippets for Service Classes

Scopes in Dependency Injection

Singleton, Transient, and Scoped

In .NET Core, dependencies can be registered with different lifetimes: Singleton, Transient, and Scoped.

Singleton: A single instance is created and shared across the entire application.

Transient: A new instance is created every time it is requested.

Scoped: A new instance is created once per request within the scope of the request.

Understanding Lifetime Management

Choose the appropriate lifetime based on the requirements of your application. For example, use Singleton for stateless and reusable components, Transient for lightweight components, and Scoped for components that require a per-request lifetime.


Understanding Dependency Injection in .NET Core is essential for building scalable and maintainable applications. By embracing DI, you can achieve loosely coupled components, leading to better testability and flexibility. In this article, we explored the core concepts of DI, its advantages, and practical implementation in a real-life example. Remember to follow best practices and consider the appropriate lifetime for your dependencies to create robust and efficient applications.

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